``````{
From: PETER KOLDING
Subj: 3D Graphics

MB>  Hello, I'm trying to write a simple program that will plot points in three
MB>  dimensions and allow you to rotate them,or view them from different
angles.
MB>  need a lot of help. I'm trying to make a data file of points in the format
MB>  (x,y,z) and then have the program read the points in to display. So far no
MB>  luck. If anyone has any code that is simple enough for me to understand I
MB>  would appreciate it. Also if anyone has any code for doing fast vga
}

program boxrot;

{PUBLIC DOMAIN  1993 Peter M. Gruhn}

{Program draws a box on screen. Allows user to rotate the box around
the three primary axes. Viewing transform is simple ignore z.}

{I used _Computer_Graphics:_Principles_and_Practice_, Foley et al
ISBN 0-201-12110-7 as a reference}

{RUNNING:
Borland Pascal 7. Should run on any graphics device supported by BGI.
If you have smaller than 280 resolution, change '+200' to something
smaller and/or change 75 to something smaller.

Since this machine is
not really set up for doing DOS graphics, I hard coded my BGI path, so
you have to find 'initgraph' and change the bgi path to something that
works on your machine. Try ''.

{Okey dokey. This is kinda slow, and does a nice job of demonstrating the
problems of repeatedly modifying the same data set. That is, the more and
more you rotate the box, the more and more distorted it gets. This is
because computers are not perfect at calculations, and all of those little

It's because of that that I used reals, not reals. I used floating point
because the guy doesn't know what is going on at all with 3d, so better to
look at only the math that is really happening. Besides, I still have to
think to use fixed point. Whaddaya want for .5 hour programming.

DIRECTIONS:
',' - rotates around the x axis
'.' - rotates around the y axis
'/' - rotates around the z axis
'q' - quits

All rotations are done around global axes, not object axes.}

uses graph,crt;

{sin and cos on computers are done in radians.}

type tpointr=record   {Just a record to hold 3d points}
x,y,z:real;
end;

var box:array[0..7] of tpointr;   {The box we will manipulate}
c:char;                    {Our input mechanism}

procedure init;
var gd,gm:integer;
{turns on graphics and creates a cube. Since the rotation routines
rotate around the origin, I have centered the cube on the origin, so
that it stays in place and only spins.} begin
gd:=detect; initgraph(gd,gm,'d:\turbo\tp\');
box[0].x:=-75;  box[0].y:=-75;  box[0].z:=-75;
box[1].x:=75;   box[1].y:=-75;  box[1].z:=-75;
box[2].x:=75;   box[2].y:=75;   box[2].z:=-75;
box[3].x:=-75;  box[3].y:=75;   box[3].z:=-75;
box[4].x:=-75;  box[4].y:=-75;  box[4].z:=75;
box[5].x:=75;   box[5].y:=-75;  box[5].z:=75;
box[6].x:=75;   box[6].y:=75;   box[6].z:=75;
box[7].x:=-75;  box[7].y:=75;   box[7].z:=75; end;

procedure myline(x1,y1,z1,x2,y2,z2:real); {Keeps the draw routine pretty.
Pixels are integers, so I round. Since the
cube is centered around 0,0 I move it over 200 to put it on screen.} begin
{if you think those real mults are slow, here's some rounds too...}

{hey, you may wonder, what happened to the stinking z coordinate? Ah, says I,
this is the simplest of 3d viewing transforms. You just take the z coord out
of things and boom. Looking straight down the z axis on the object. If I get
inspired, I will add simple perspective transform to these.} {There, got
inspired. Made mistakes. Foley et al are not very good at
tutoring perspective and I'm kinda ready to be done and post this.}
line(round(x1)+200,round(y1)+200,
round(x2)+200,round(y2)+200);
end;

procedure draw;
{my model is hard coded. No cool things like vertex and edge and face
lists.}

begin
myline(box[0].x,box[0].y,box[0].z, box[1].x,box[1].y,box[1].z);
myline(box[1].x,box[1].y,box[1].z, box[2].x,box[2].y,box[2].z);
myline(box[2].x,box[2].y,box[2].z, box[3].x,box[3].y,box[3].z);
myline(box[3].x,box[3].y,box[3].z, box[0].x,box[0].y,box[0].z);

myline(box[4].x,box[4].y,box[4].z, box[5].x,box[5].y,box[5].z);
myline(box[5].x,box[5].y,box[5].z, box[6].x,box[6].y,box[6].z);
myline(box[6].x,box[6].y,box[6].z, box[7].x,box[7].y,box[7].z);
myline(box[7].x,box[7].y,box[7].z, box[4].x,box[4].y,box[4].z);

myline(box[0].x,box[0].y,box[0].z, box[4].x,box[4].y,box[4].z);
myline(box[1].x,box[1].y,box[1].z, box[5].x,box[5].y,box[5].z);
myline(box[2].x,box[2].y,box[2].z, box[6].x,box[6].y,box[6].z);
myline(box[3].x,box[3].y,box[3].z, box[7].x,box[7].y,box[7].z);

myline(box[0].x,box[0].y,box[0].z, box[5].x,box[5].y,box[5].z);
myline(box[1].x,box[1].y,box[1].z, box[4].x,box[4].y,box[4].z); end;

procedure rotx;
{if you know your matrix multiplication, the following equations
are derived from

[x   [ 1  0  0  0   [x',y',z',1]
y     0  c -s  0 =
z     0  s  c  0
1]    0  0  0  1]
}
var i:integer;
begin
setcolor(0);
draw;
for i:=0 to 7 do
begin
box[i].x:= box[i].x;
end;
setcolor(15);
draw;
end;

procedure roty;
{if you know your matrix multiplication, the following equations
are derived from
[x   [ c  0  s  0   [x',y',z',1]
y     0  1  0  0 =
z    -s  0  c  0
1]    0  0  0  1]
}
var i:integer;
begin
setcolor(0);
draw;
for i:=0 to 7 do
begin
box[i].y:= box[i].y;
end;
setcolor(15);
draw;
end;

procedure rotz;
{if you know your matrix multiplication, the following equations
are derived from

[x   [ c -s  0  0   [x',y',z',1]
y     s  c  0  0 =
z     0  0  1  0
1]    0  0  0  1]
}
var i:integer;
begin
setcolor(0);
draw;
for i:=0 to 7 do
begin
box[i].z:= box[i].z;
end;
setcolor(15);
draw;
end;

begin
init;
setcolor(14); draw;
repeat